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  • Chlorine (Chlorine) is a chemical used widely. Since more than 99% of chlorine to eliminate bacteria, including E.. Coli (E.coli) bacteria and viruses. Addition of chlorine to kill germs in the water in a short period of time, the chlorine added to it. The results in the long run. The chlorine added to water in the form of free chlorine (Residual Chlorine) do not kill bacteria that may contaminate later.
    Properties of chlorine. Chlorine can exist in liquid and gas. Basically, almost any chemical reaction with the metal, the presence of moisture in it. Chlorine is a chemical explosion and fire with the militants.
    Water temperature and pressure. The color green has a pungent smell gas if mixed with air is dangerous to all living things. Chlorine gas is 2.5 times heavier than air so when leaking water is spread on the soil surface covered with water. And low areas. Chlorine gas is only slightly soluble.
    Liquid chlorine is amber. Approximately 1.5 times heavier than water at normal pressure the boiling point of -34 0C on the condition of the gas will expand to about 460 times, so you should fix the leak and prevent leakage of liquid.
    Liquid chlorine and chlorine dioxide, dry it will not corrode metals such as iron, copper, iron, lead, completely wireless, but the metal will be severely eroded. If exposure to chlorinated water, so that the active components with liquid chlorine. Should be tightly closed when not in use. For moisture to cause harm.
    Chlorine in the chlorine container is dry. (Moisture content less than 150 parts per million), a liquid under high pressure. This pressure change with temperature. The pressure increases with temperature. Because the liquid expands into a gas. As the temperature of 350C and pressure of chlorine gas in a metal container is equal to 10 times the air pressure. If the temperature rises to 65 0C internal pressure is equal to 20 times the pressure of the air. This will harm the containers should be stored indoors in a container of chlorine. And ventilated place.
    The type of chlorine.
    Chlorine is a chemical used to kill germs in water. This highly effective in destroying bacteria and begin to think the color is white, is not objectionable. Except for a slight odor. There are basically two types of chlorine gas and powder.
    A. Of chlorine gas. Yellow-green. Approximately 2.5 times the density of air and liquid (liquid chlorine 99%) are in amber. Density is 1.44 times that of water, which is harmful to the lungs and tissues. It causes irritation to the respiratory system and skin, mucous membranes, nose, harmful effects from exposure to chlorine gas will begin to see clearly. The concentration of 5 ppm. Or more and at concentrations 5-10 ppm. To make breathing problems, skin irritation, watery eyes. Irritate the lungs. The higher concentration of chlorine gas as if it had been in the 1,000 ppm. Be fatal. Therefore, care must be taken. It has specialized in the installation and operation. Chlorine is not combustible but assists in the metabolism of oxygen. And found that chlorine gas reacts violently with water, fat, FL North Tyne and hydrocarbons. Do not conduct electricity. No corrosion (Corrosive) when dry.
    Two. Of chlorine powder or known of. "Chlorinated lime powder," There are many types.
    2.1 Special Claarts high calcium (Calcium hypochlorite) as a white powder soluble in water with the chemical formula is Ca (OCl) 2 tend to produce a concentration of between 60-70% by weight of chlorine powder is readily available. is not harmful to humans and animals seriously. Do not spoil the taste. Disinfection time not too long. And continues to effect a further kill pathogens. Easy to use. And to monitor performance easily, so it is used widely as possible.
    Claarts Pro 2.2 Sodium (Sodium hypochlorite) solution is clear. Yellow-green with a chemical formula NaOCl concentration is about 16% by weight of calcium is less stable than the high pro Claarts. To deteriorate quickly. It should be kept in the dark, and temperatures no higher than 30 0C to slow down the rate of deterioration in the quality and age should not exceed 60-90 days for a solution of sodium pro Claarts. In low pH conditions, chlorine can evaporate into the mist explosion.
    2.3 lime chloride (Chlorinated Lime or Chloride of Lime or Bleaching Powder) or, sometimes referred to as "bleaching powder" has the chemical formula is produced from a chemical reaction between chlorine CaOCl2 and lime. There were about 35% by weight.
    Effective disinfection of chlorinated lime powder.
    The use of chlorine disinfection efficiency depends on several factors.
    A. The concentration of free chlorine (Free chlorine residual) concentration and the amount of chlorine added to water is the most important thing to kill germs. If the amount of free chlorine residual in the water. Was measured after a period of time, but the touch of a little chlorine. Will not cause the chlorine to destroy bacteria in water and may not all However, the addition of chlorine in excess. The water has a pungent smell and taste of chlorine to the water. It also supplies water for the addition of chlorine to be corrosive. Tools and equipment may be damaged, so the chlorine can be added in moderation is not able to kill bacteria. The cause of free chlorine that is recommended is between 0.2 to 0.5 milligrams per liter (0.2-0.5 ppm.) At the time of exposure was 30 minutes after the addition of chlorine solution for 30 minutes then you can measure the amount of free chlorine is 0.2. -0.5 mg per liter.
    Two. Duration of disease (Duration of contact), the starting time of the saturated solution of powdered chlorinated lime to the water until the user starts using water as the first should not be less than 30 minutes or longer. sterile solution of chlorinated lime powder, it will be very little. And odor reduction.
    Three. Temperature (Temperature) is the temperature in the disinfection of water is reduced to powder. In contrast, if the temperature is low. Effective disinfection of chlorinated lime powder is improved.
    Four. The turbidity (Turbidity) particles in water turbidity barrier may be masking the disease.To capture particles of turbidity, total precipitation. And through the filter.
    Five. For the acid - alkaline water (pH) effects of chlorine disinfection. The chlorine will be a high pro Claudia Russell (Hypochlorus: HOCl), which has the power to kill the bacteria when the water is acidic, slightly if the pH above 7.5 can cause OCl-, which OCl-is effective. HOCl disinfection will be less wasteful, more chlorine and a pH of 9.5 to as high as the OCl-to 100%.

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